Open Access Publications

Open Access HIV & TB PublicationsThe Victor Daitz Information Gateway provides financial support to HIV and TB researchers at the University of KwaZulu-Natal wishing to publish papers in Open Access journals. The list of Open Access articles below are papers published with the support of the Victor Daitz Information Gateway.

  • Bhattacharya D, Dwivedi VP, Kumar S, Reddy MC, Van Kaer L, Moodley P, Das G

    The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol 289, Issue 48, 11/2014

    Tuberculosis affects nine million individuals and kills almost two million people every year. The only vaccine available, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), has been used since its inception in 1921. Although BCG induces host-protective T helper 1 (Th1) cell immune responses, which play a central role in host protection, its efficacy is unsatisfactory, suggesting that additional methods to enhance protective immune responses are needed. Recently we have shown that simultaneous inhibition of Th2 cells and Tregs by using the pharmacological inhibitors suplatast tosylate and D4476, respectively, dramatically enhances Mycobacterium tuberculosis clearance and induces superior Th1 responses. Here we show that treatment with these two drugs during BCG vaccination dramatically improves vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these drugs induce a shift in the development of T cell memory, favoring central memory T (Tcm) cell responses over effector memory T (Tem) cell responses. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that simultaneous inhibition of Th2 cells and Tregs during BCG vaccination promotes vaccine efficacy.

  • Vinod B. Patel, Cathy Connolly, Ravesh Singh, Laura Lenders, Brian Matinyenya, Grant Theron, Thumbi Ndung'u, Keertan Dheda

    Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol 52, Issue 10, 10/2014

    There are no data about the comparative accuracy of commercially available nucleic acid amplification tests (GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Roche Amplicor) for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). A total of 148 patients with suspected TBM were evaluated, and cultures served as the reference standard. The sensitivities and specificities (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the Amplicor and Xpert MTB/RIF tests were similar: 46 (31–60) versus 50 (33–67) and 99 (93–100) and 94 (84–99), respectively.

  • K Gounder, N Padayachi, JK Mann, M Radebe, M Mokgoro, M van der Stok, L Mkhize, Z Mncube, M Jaggernath, T Reddy, BD Walker, T Ndung'u

    PLoS One, Vol 10, Issue 3, 03/2015

    In chronic HIV infection, CD8+ T cell responses to Gag are associated with lower viral loads, but longitudinal studies of HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell-driven selection pressure in Gag from the time of acute infection are limited. In this study we examined Gag sequence evolution over the first year of infection in 22 patients identified prior to seroconversion.

  • S Chetty, P Govender, J Zupkosky, M Pillay, M Ghebremichael, MY Moosa, T Ndung'u, F Porichis, VO Kasprowicz

    PLoS One, Vol 10, Issue 3, 03/2015

    The ability of antigen-specific T cells to simultaneously produce multiple cytokines is thought to correlate with the functional capacity and efficacy of T cells. These 'polyfunctional' T cells have been associated with control of HIV. We aimed to assess the impact of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) on HIV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell function.

  • LE Mansoor, Q Abdool Karim, KT Mngadi, S Dlamini, C Montague, N Nkomonde, N Mvandaba, C Baxter, TN Gengiah, N Samsunder, H Dawood, A Grobler, JA Frohlich, SS Abdool Karim

    Trials, Vol 15, Issue 496, 12/2014

    This protocol aims to address an important implementation question on whether FP services are able to effectively incorporate tenofovir gel provision for this at-risk group of women in South Africa. Provision of tenofovir gel to the women from the CAPRISA 004 trial meets the ethical obligation for post-trial access, and helps identify a potential avenue for future scale-up of microbicides within the public health system of South Africa.