Open Access Publications

Open Access HIV & TB PublicationsThe Victor Daitz Information Gateway provides financial support to HIV and TB researchers at the University of KwaZulu-Natal wishing to publish papers in Open Access journals. The list of Open Access articles below are papers published with the support of the Victor Daitz Information Gateway.

  • Famoroti T, Sibanda W, Ndung'u T

    BMC Pediatr, Vol 18, Issue 1, 07/2018

    Acute respiratory tract infections contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality among young children in resource-poor countries.

  • Jackson L, Hunter J, Cele S, Ferreira IM, Young AC, Karim F, Madansein R4, Dullabh KJ, Chen CY, Buckels NJ, Ganga Y, Khan K, Boulle M, Lustig G, Neher RA, Sigal A

    Elife, Vol 20, Issue 7, 03/2018

    HIV has been reported to be cytotoxic in vitro and in lymph node infection models. Using a computational approach, we found that partial inhibition of transmissions of multiple virions per cell could lead to increased numbers of live infected cells.

  • Victoria O. Kasprowicz, Denis Chopera, Kim Darley Waddilove, Mark A. Brockman, Jill Gilmour, Eric Hunter, William Kilembe, Etienne Karita, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Eduard J. Sanders, Thumbi Ndung’u

    , Vol 20, Issue 1, 07/2020

    Challenges and approaches to health research capacity strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Ikanyeng D Seipone, Ravesh Singh, Vinod B Patel, Avashna Singh, Michelle L Gordon, Daniel M Muema, Keertan Dheda and Thumbi Ndung’u

    PLoS One, Vol 13, Issue 2, 02/2018

    To gain a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and identify potential diagnostic biomarkers that may discriminate TBM from other HIV-1-associated meningitides, we assessed HIV-1 viral load levels, drug resistance patterns in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced patients with persistent viremia and soluble immunological analytes in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 infected patients with TBM versus other meningitides. One hundred and three matched blood and CSF samples collected from HIV-1 infected patients with TBM or other meningitides presenting at a hospital in Durban, South Africa, from January 2009 to December 2011 were studied. HIV-1 RNA and 28 soluble immunological potential biomarkers were quantified in blood plasma and CSF. Viremic samples were assessed for HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. There were 16 TBM, 46 probable TBM, 35 non-TBM patients, and six unclassifiable patients. TBM and non-TBM patients did not differ in median plasma viral load but TBM patients had significantly higher median CSF viral load than non-TBM participants (p = 0.0005). No major drug resistance mutations were detected in viremic samples. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and cathelicidin were significantly elevated in the CNS of TBM participants compared to other patients although these associations were lost after correction for false discovery. Our data suggest that TB co-infection of the CNS is associated with enhanced localized HIV-1 viral replication but none of the evaluated soluble immunological potential biomarkers could reliably distinguish TBM from other HIV-associated meningitides.

  • Sinaye Ngcapu, Kristof Theys, Pieter Libin, Vincent C Marconi, Henry Sunpath, Thumbi Ndung’u and Michelle L Gordon

    Viruses, Vol 9, Issue 11, 11/2017

    The South African national treatment programme includes nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in both first and second line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. Mutations in the RNase H domain have been associated with resistance to NRTIs but primarily in HIV-1 subtype B studies. Here, we investigated the prevalence and association of RNase H mutations with NRTI resistance in sequences from HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals. RNase H sequences from 112 NRTI treated but virologically failing individuals and 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals were generated and analysed. In addition, sequences from 359 subtype C ART-naive sequences were downloaded from Los Alamos database to give a total of 387 sequences from ART-naive individuals for the analysis. Fisher's exact test was used to identify mutations and Bayesian network learning was applied to identify novel NRTI resistance mutation pathways in RNase H domain. The mutations A435L, S468A, T470S, L484I, A508S, Q509L, L517I, Q524E and E529D were more prevalent in sequences from treatment-experienced compared to antiretroviral treatment naive individuals, however, only the E529D mutation remained significant after correction for multiple comparison. Our findings suggest a potential interaction between E529D and NRTI-treatment; however, site-directed mutagenesis is needed to understand the impact of this RNase H mutation.

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